Ali M. Ansari is Professor of Iranian History & Founding Director of the Institute for Iranian Studies at the University of St Andrews; Senior Associate Fellow, Royal United Services Institute. In 2016 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. In 2018 he was elected Hon Vice President of the British Institute for Persian Studies. His publications include Modern Iran since 1797, 3rd updated edition (2019), Iran, Islam & Democracy - The Politics of Managing Change, 3rd updated edition, (2019); Iran: A Very Short Introduction (2014), The Politics of Nationalism in Modern Iran (2012); Iran Under Ahmadinejad, Adelphi Paper, IISS, January 2008, Confronting Iran: the failure of US policy and the roots of mistrust (2006). He is also editor of the Cambridge History of Iran Vol. 8 (‘The Islamic Republic’). Ali is currently on secondment to the FCO as AHRC/ESRC FCO Research Fellow.